only rule is that there is no rules, celebrates what may otherwise be known as kitsch. Starts s a critique of the international style, ideas developed by Charles Jencks 1977.
bricolage (mixing styles and materials)
parody, pastiche (copying in a cheap/nasty way knowingly) and irony.
double coding/quoting of historical styles
questioning old limitations
space for marginalised discourse
mass of styles, juxtaposition, slightly cheap, slightly tacky, Eiffel tower, sphinx, statue of liberty
V.Papanek- “I don’t like Europe as much as I liked Disney world. At Disney world the countries are much closer together, and they just show you the best of each country.” Why go travelling?
seagram building New York
Philip Johnson, Sony Plaza
detail which actually serves no purpose.
Pompidou Centre, Paris
Stuttgart Germany, Neue Staatsgalerie, over simplified colosseum
‘style over substance’
Philippe Starck- Juicy Salif 1990
Andy Warhol, Campbells Soup cans 1962
Roy Lichtenstein, Drowning Girl 1963
Jeff Koons, Dirty- jeff on top and Michael Jackson and Bubbles 1988
Michael Craig Martin- An Oak Tree 1973-Interview, entertainment value of him managing to anger an interviewer by being adamant a glass of water is an oak tree.
David Shrigley-Glass Shelf- “I smoke cannabis and look up at it for hours”
Damien Hirst-Mother and Child Divided 1993
Tracey Emin, Everyone I ever slept with 1963-95,1995
Two Japanese students famously filmed themselves jumping up and down on the bed.
Sarah Lucas, Au Naturel 1994
Chapman Brothers-Zygotic acceleration
-Works from the Chapman Family Collection-2002
Chris Ofili- No woman, no cry 1998- tears being cried over steven lawrence killed in a racial attack, done with references to his cultural roots, rests his paintings on elephant dung.
– Holy Virgin Mary 1996- Figures shown as white, blonde hair and blue eyes, painting shows mary with a different colour of skin, hundreds of new Yorkers offended by a dark skinned virgin mary and it was taken out of the exhibition.
Captain Shit and the legend of the black stars 1997- do artists undermine their own seriousness?
Martin Creed work no. 227: the lights go on and off 2000- not giving any meaning through the title just telling you what it is, started to be looked into torture because critics may have been looking for something that’s not actually there.
Work no.81, a one inch cube of masking tape in the middle of every wall in a building, 1993.
Mark Wallinger, Sleeper
David Carson- Ray Gun- work isn’t designed to be read
“don’t mistake legibility for communication”
Barbara Kruger- I shop therefore I am, 1987
Used by Selfridges
Banksy- tesco value tomato soup- ripping off andy warhols rip off.
– and andy warhols Marilyn Monroe, turns into kate moss
People start to use alternative spaces, using new media and techniques, land art- spiral jetty, sun tunnels, Lightening Field, House- all demolished and residents got moved into high rise buildings, kept one house up but that eventually got knocked down anyway.
K Foundation- £1 million, nailed to the wall, no art galleries wanted to accept it because of insurance, wasn’t accepted by banks because it had large nail holes in, but online for 500,000 and would be reprinted for 500, they then went on to burn it.
Bill Drummond- bought ‘a smell of sulphur in the wind’ Richard Long wouldn’t be interviewed for Big Issue so now Drummond continues to basically ruin the work.
Carston Holler, Test Site 2006
Post modernism questions convention especially of modernism
Post modern aesthetic= multiplicity of style and approaches
Shift in thought and theory investigating ‘crisis in confidence’
‘Postmodernism is indefinable’