Lecture Notes-Interwar Europe

Interwar Europe
art, design and propaganda

Weimar Period-1919-1933
unstable politically, decadent, culturally rich, bohemian lifestyle.
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner
Emil Nolde- Crucifixion 1912-expressionist

Bauhaus-mies van der rohe, Bercelona pavilion, logos, graphic design, architecture

Rise of national socialist workers, socialist german workers part (NSDAP)
hitler appointed leader, party gains power in 1933
Nuremburg Rally 1934

U2-Zoo Tv tour, looking at crowd reaction

Nazi Ideology-
ethnic nationalism, racisim-hierarchy of races (Nordic, Aryan), Eugenics, ideal of a pure race, sub humans- africa, gypsy, homosexuals.

Nazi policies on art
-more german art
-cosmopolitan/Bolshevik art to be removed
-if public money wasted-sacked-museum directors
-modernism, Marxism forbidden
-sculptures

purging of modernism-degenerate art exhibition-1937-‘kunst’
Ludwig Vierthaler- exhibition poster wasn’t used because it was graphic, modernist and everything the exhibition stood against
using examples of photos with facial deformities against art of faces to show degenerate theory.

Great German art exhibition- catalogue very formal-3rd Reich, classical, compared to degenerate catalogue which was very informal, naïve, simple.

‘he who paints our youth as wasted idiots and the german mother as a Neanderthal woman, has shown undeniable proof of his degenerate character’-Adolf Zeigler
1936 olympics
Jesse Owens-black athlete-Hitler walks out when he wins his final medal

Gothic text becomes synonymous with nazi Germany-graphic design
Ivo Saliger, the judgment of paris, based on greek mythology, in the painting he chooses the one with blonde hair and blue eyes, based on Aryan values.

Adolf Zeigler-four elements
Ernst Liebermann-by the water
Sepp Hilz-A Country Venus
Leopold Schmutzler-Working maidens
Adolf Wissel-Farm Family from Kahlenberg 1939
A. Samokhvalov-Kirov at the sports parade-1935-russian-classic painting-celebrating youth and sports
Alexander Rodchenko-The female Pyramid-1936- Russian-known well for his modernist photography.

Anti Nazi
John Heartfield-adolf the superman, swallows gold and spouts junk
-Hurrah, the butter is all gone (may not have food and money but we have plenty of munitions)

Salvador Dali-spanish civil war, fascists v communists, Soft construction with boiled …..
Pablo Picasso-Guernica-1937
-hitler sent pilots to completely bomb out the town.

Joan Miro (Spanish)- Aidez L’Espagne
Pere Catala I Pic- lets squash facism- 1936
Anonymous- Madrid- if you tolerate this your children will be next
Josep Renau- the commissioner at the nerve centre of our popular army 1936
19 years of the soviet union
Stalingrad-the new star of freedom 1942 – graphic style, picked up by designers in the last 15 years, to create a certain mood
happy new year-1943- propaganda, creating a sense of unity against people
Heritage of graphic design appearing in this period
El Lissitzky
G. Klucis- in the storm of the third year of the five year plan
Long live the USSR, fatherland of workers of the world 1931
celebrating the multiethnic, cultural, hand in hand, against nazi Germany
Our army and our country are strengthened with the spirit of stalin-1939- showing hierarchy
-less refined visual style
Alexander Rodchenko- women having a voice, new type of woman within society

The new woman, photomontage, Spanish pavilion, paris international exhibition-1937- during the Spanish civil war. Events like the civil war, nazi Germany and mussolinis Italy come together and are all shown at this exhibition
-catholic religion
-militaristic uniform
-allowed to have a voice
-wearing trousers

The Great Nazi- communist face off, the expostition internationale paris-1937
Male and female workers, coming together, equality- facing the nazi eagle at the same level but looking like it is about to pounce.

Osbert Lancaster- polar oposites in views but architecturally are similarly.
Albert Speer- project for a great hall on the north south axis, berlin
Le Corbusier- tower blocks even larger than notre dame
BM Lofan-project for the palace of the soviets
KS Melnikov- commissariat of heavy industry
Marcello Piacentini- espozione universale di roma- rome 1938-1943 – square colosseum
J Glancey- ‘a concrete fortress that recalls Rommells 1944 D day defences in normandy’
Monatery la Tourette-france-1957

Although the politics of totalitarian regimes are opposites, do they employ the same art and architecture as propaganda tools.

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