Lecture Notes- Animation (additionally visited lecture)


animare-latin-‘to give life to’
requires an individual to create a series of artificial images to give the illusion of movement, and fools the brain into seeing movement-persistence of vision

humans have illustrated stories sequentially for thousands of years, on walls, vases etc ancient Egyptians using tombs etc

The Magic Lantern approx. 1650-Christian Huygens-essentially a projector.
The thaumatrope-1824-John Herschel-made popular John Paris by it becoming a toy
Zoetrope-1834-placed inside a drum, popular, more than one person can use them at one
The Kineograph-flipbook-1868
Praxinoscope-charles emile reynaud-predates Edison

artists began to then record a series of drawings (frames) many artists then became fascinated with the idea of bringing their drawings to life

Norman McLaren-1914-1987-‘animation is not the art of drawings that move, but the art of movements that are drawn’

‘in order to move forward you need to know where you have come from’
Michaela Pavlatova-2013

George Méliès:A trip to the moon-1902
Emile Cohl:Fantasmagorie-1908
Windsor McCay-Gertie the Dinosaur 1908-first piece of key framing and registration marks
“                            “ Sinking of the Lusitania-1918-piece of animation took 7 days to travel around the world, first dramatic work of animation
Lotte Reiniger:-adventures of Prince Achmed-1926-longest surviving piece of animation

Had developed a language, it had become mainstream, it was more accessible. People had paved the way for this, using it to entertain and for fun

Steamboat willy-1928
The Skeleton Dance-1929-skeleton dance could be considered one of the first music videos because It was made in response to music rather than it having music made for it

Aleksandr Ptushko’s Novvy (new) Gulliver 1929-stop motion
Ladislaw Starewicz-the tale of the fox 1930-took ten years to make
Max Fleischer-Dizzy Dishes 1930-Betty Boop-was quite an outrageous character, taking drugs etc, got sensored.
and Popeye who was part of betty boop but got his own show
Willis Obrien-King Kong-1933
Oskar Fischinger: Komposition in Blau-1935-visualising music- was pursued by the nazis because it was considered degenerate to use modernism and he was invited to America and eventually worked for Disney but left.
Toybox:momotaro vs Mickey Mouse 1936-japanese produced a series of cartoons to show that the americans were evil and produced their own little hero to save them, propaganda through animation
Len Lye-Colour Box-1935-6-abstract piece of film, advertising the postal service, direct film, he investigated the idea of motion-painted directly onto the film, used this to show how diverse and responsive the postal service were
Disney:Snow White and the seven Dwarves-1937-26mins-disney had to remortagte his house, used different techniques to film this film with, over 1000 people worked on this.
Fantasia-1941-reworking of mickey mouse-oskar fischinger worked on the initial ideas, but disagreements between the two people caused him to walk away
Wan Brothers-Princess Iron Fan

Disney, world war 2 and propaganda
-education for death:raising of a nazi
-Victory through air power 1943-commisioned by the USAF to get more resources to build aircraft
Disney putting across his political viewpoints through films

UPA-The brotherhood of man-1945-based on a leaflet given out, to do with integration of immigrants-saying all men are equal
UPA-Gerald McBoing-Boing 1951-based on a doctor zuess story
Normal McLaren:Neighbours (1952)-about the cold war
Chuck Jones-Duck Amuck-1953-Daffy Duck feature- talks to the animator, gives him a real soul
Halas and Batchelor-Animal Farm-1954-based on George Orwell-the win of democracy over dictatorships. Halas and Batchelor made the first commercial films
Saul Bass-The Man with the golden Arm-1954
anatomy of a murderer-1959

Golden Age of Cartoons-practice of block booking animated shorts with a feature film came to an end, popularity of television meant broadcasters demanded large quantities of programming on low budgets.
Eg. Simplifying background, reusing animation walk cycles, talking mouths-lip syncs etc
Hanna Barbera-1960 onwards-flinstones, huckleberry hound
Bob Godfrey-rhubarb and custard-Do it yourself Kit-1961-manic surrealist humour
Zagreb film-Ersatz (surogat) 1961-modernist.
Stan Brakhage-mothlight-1963-direct film.
Ray Harryhausen:Jason and the Argonauts-1963-the skeleton scene was incredibly complex
Osamu Tezuka:astro boy (1963)-reinvented 3 times, loosely based on Pinocchio
Jiri Trnka
Chuck Jones-the dot and the line, a romance in lower mathematics-1965

!966-disney dies
Gordon Murray-Camberwick Green-1966
Terry Gilliam-Monty Python Flying Circus-1966
Oliver Postgate-the clangers-1969-stop motion-also did bagpuss and ivor the engine
Richard Williams:a Christmas carol-1971-wasn’t allowed to call its actual names
George lucas
Ivor Caprino The pinchliffe grand pric-1975-uses animatronics for the first time-longest running screening of any film in Norway-28 years
Bob Godfrey-roobarb and custard-1977-also did a film which got banned
Martin Rosen:Watership Down-1979-based on the book,was aimed at kids, shouldn’t have been
Roger Mainwood-autobahn music video-1979-first use of computer within animation-rubbish
Yuri norstein-tale of tales-1979-complex multiplates
Tim Burton-vincent 1982
Don Bluth-The secret of Nimh-1982-he left Disney because he had standards
Steven Lisberger-Tron-1982-cost $20million to make-disney-live action with a  bit of animation-only 2 minutes of computer animation
Gerald Scarfe-Pink Floyd The Wall-1982
Cosgrove Hall-1983-wind in the willows-also did dangermouse-you don’t get a full range of emotions but so beautifully created
Pixar-Luxa Jr
Jimmy Murakami-When the wind blows-1986-response to nuclear war-nuclear holocaust-same people that did the snowman
Brothers Quay-Street of Crocodiles-1986
Joanna Quin-girls night out-1987
Jan Svankmajer-Alice-1988-combined live action, stop motion and pixilation techniques, did one called food
Disney-who framed roger rabbit-cost $70 million, massive success, poke at the animation industry, Richard Williams having a go at being told what to do
Katsuhiro otomo-akira-1988
Studio Ghibli-my neighbour totoro-1988
Disney beauty and the beast-1991-sent all the animators to live in france because that’s where it was set, 6 months, so they could understand artwork, and lighting
Barry Purves-screenplay-1992-shot in his bedroom
Steven Spielberg-Jurassic Park-1993
John Lasseter-toy story-1995-first completely computer animated film
Dave Borthwic-Secret adventures of Tom Thumb-1995
Aardman-A close Shave-1995-claymation
Mamoru-oshii-ghost in the shell 1995-combines 2d and 3d.
Lasseter and Stanton- a bugs life
Michael Dudok de wit-father and daughter-2000-uses traditional animation techniques
Narayan Shi-Freedom Song-2000
Jamie Hewlett-Gorillaz-Clint Eastwood-2001
Sylvain Chomet-Le triplettes of Belleville-2003-made over the internet, so didn’t have to work in a single base. Had some CG, used special software to destroy the lines and make it look hand drawn
Run Wrake-Rabbit-2005-about consumerism and the death of innocence
Pleix-Plaid-Itsu-2006-poking at consumerism
Semiconductor-magnetic movie-2007
Marjane Satrapi-persepolis-2007-independent animation
Ari Folman-Waltz with Bashir-2008
Henry Selick-coraline-2009-stop motion- a portal story
James Cameron-Avatar-2009-$200 millon to make, $150million to advertise
Cyriak-Flying lotus-pretty boy strut-2012
McCann Advertising AUS-Dumb ways to die-train safety campaign-2013


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